CBHC / RCAHMW https://rcahmw.gov.uk On the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales Thu, 14 Feb 2019 14:18:14 +0000 en-GB hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.9 All Quiet on the Western Front https://rcahmw.gov.uk/all-quiet-on-the-western-front/ https://rcahmw.gov.uk/all-quiet-on-the-western-front/#respond Tue, 12 Feb 2019 09:57:42 +0000 https://rcahmw.gov.uk/?p=14393 Post-Armistice operations off the Welsh coast.

HMS Audacious sinking on 27 October 1914. A major success for German mines during World War I. IWM photograph Q 48342.

HMS Audacious sinking on 27 October 1914. A major success for German mines during World War I. IWM photograph Q 48342.

 

The Armistice of 11 November 1918 saw an end to much of the hostilities, particularly on the Western Front. However, military operations continued on the home fronts, off the Irish and North seas, across the coasts of Wales into early 1919. Airships had been deployed throughout the war to search for submarines and protect the vital shipping routes from the west into Holyhead, Liverpool, Bristol and Dublin.

The airship stations at Llangefni on Anglesey and Milton in Pembrokeshire continued flying patrols to seek German U-boats that had yet to surrender. There was also the ever-present danger to shipping of sea mines, the purpose of which was to interrupt the flow of supplies to Britain and to hamper the British fleet. Mines were most often set near harbours and inlets, as these were areas of high traffic.

Great Britain reacted to the threat by setting up an intelligence network to identify, map, and distribute information about the location of mines (1) and to begin regular coastal patrols, often by airship on ‘seek and destroy’ missions.

Secret maps, such as this one, were essential to the British Navy to confidentially report on the status of German minefields to commanders and policymakers. This map in particular boasts of the British Navy’s successful minesweeping operations that minimized the threat posed by German mines.

Germany started laying operations almost as soon as World War I was declared with the first minefield being planted by the auxiliary minelayer Koenigin Louise, off Lowestoff on the night of 4/5 August 1914.

 

The standard German contact or E-mine of World War I. This was a Hertz horn-mine with a 330 lbs. (150 kg) charge. The British captured one of these and essentially copied it to produce their first reliable mine of World War I. (2)

The standard German contact or E-mine of World War I. This was a Hertz horn-mine with a 330 lbs. (150 kg) charge. The British captured one of these and essentially copied it to produce their first reliable mine of World War I. (2)

 

During World War I, Germany laid more than 43,000 mines which claimed 497 merchant vessels of 1,044,456 gross tons (GRT), with one source claiming the total was 586 Allied merchant ships. The British alone lost 44 warships and 225 auxiliaries to mines.

The British and Russians lost at least eight submarines to mines with the possibility that some of the six Russian and ten British submarines that disappeared without a trace during the war were also sunk by mines.

Several U-boats were fitted as mine-layers, and one of these planted a field off the east coast of the USA which claimed the armoured cruiser USS San Diego.

On  21 November 1918 the blimp Submarine Scout Zero 53, patrolling the approaches to Bristol Channel just below the Gower, spotted three mines that were floating on the surface. Failing to destroy two of them with the Lewis gun, a mine-sweeper was summoned from Swansea. By the time it had arrived they had already collided together and exploded.  A trawler from Milford Haven was not so lucky and was struck by a mine in early 1919.

 

Milford Haven harbour, September 1916 from 2000 feet, photograph taken from the airship C5. (3)

Milford Haven harbour, September 1916 from 2000 feet, photograph taken from the airship C5. (3)

 

In one week, Zero airships from RAF Pembroke destroyed 23 mines in St George’s Channel and Carmarthen Bay , using the forward-mounted Lewis machine-gun that was carried specifically for this role.(4)

 

Zero airship working in cooperation with surface vessels seeking U-boats and sea mines© IWM (Q 48005)

Zero airship working in cooperation with surface vessels seeking U-boats and sea mines© IWM (Q 48005)

 

Not all of the post Armistice operations recorded in the flight logs of the airships based in Wales were of such hazardous nature. A number of the Zero blimps have records of ‘local flights’ in early 1919, often with a ‘passenger’.  These ‘passengers’ were service personnel who never got a chance to ‘go up’ and were treated to a last chance to fly in an airship before being demobbed.

SSZ16, based at Pembroke, clocked up 6 hours of its recorded 8 hours flight time in January 1919, giving local flights to passengers.

Project Zero has been researching and recording the role of airships during the Great War in Wales and further details can be read on the project blog page

  1. “British Islands: Approximate Positions of Minefields. 19th August 1918.” Hydrographic Department of the Admiralty, under superintendence of Rear-Admiral J.F. Parry, C.B. Hydrographer, August 6th, 1917. William Rea Furlong map collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.
  2. http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WAMGER_Mines.php
  3. Photo Credit Brian Turpin. Private Collection.
  4. Wales and the Air War 1914-1918, Alan Philips, Ambereley Publishing ,2015.

 

Gary Ball, Project Zero

 

 

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Newtown Bypass: recording a major infrastructure project from the air https://rcahmw.gov.uk/newtown-bypass-recording-a-major-infrastructure-project-from-the-air/ https://rcahmw.gov.uk/newtown-bypass-recording-a-major-infrastructure-project-from-the-air/#respond Mon, 11 Feb 2019 14:11:25 +0000 https://rcahmw.gov.uk/?p=14374 With the opening of the new £80 million Newtown Bypass in Powys on the 14 February 2019, here is a chance to see some ‘before and after’ views gathered by the Royal Commission during their national programme of aerial reconnaissance in summer 2016 and 2018.

The flying programme records archaeology of all periods, but also records views illustrative of the ‘people, landscape and history of Wales’. This includes major civil engineering projects, ensuring that aerial views of key aspects of Welsh history are preserved for posterity in the National Monuments Record of Wales.

You can see more aerial photographs online at: https://coflein.gov.uk/en/site/423964/details/newtown-bypass

 

1. Newtown Bypass: View looking west July 2016

1. Newtown Bypass: View looking west July 2016

 

2. Newtown Bypass: View looking west June 2018

2. Newtown Bypass: View looking west June 2018

 

3. Newtown Bypass: View looking east July 2016

3. Newtown Bypass: View looking east July 2016

 

4. Newtown Bypass: View looking east June 2018

4. Newtown Bypass: View looking east June 2018

 

5 - Newtown Bypass: Western end of bypass works June 2018

5 – Newtown Bypass: Western end of bypass works June 2018

 

6 - Newtown Bypass: New road junction and parchmarks of the Roman road, Glanhafren Hall June 2018

6 – Newtown Bypass: New road junction and parchmarks of the Roman road, Glanhafren Hall June 2018 https://coflein.gov.uk/en/site/309315/details/glanhafren-roman-road

 

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Signing the TUC’s Dying to Work Charter https://rcahmw.gov.uk/signing-the-tucs-dying-to-work-charter/ https://rcahmw.gov.uk/signing-the-tucs-dying-to-work-charter/#respond Thu, 07 Feb 2019 14:21:06 +0000 https://rcahmw.gov.uk/?p=14359 From Left to Right: Christopher Catling, Charles Green, Sue Billingsley, Stephen Bailey-John and Jon Dollery.

From Left to Right: Christopher Catling, Charles Green, Sue Billingsley, Stephen Bailey-John and Jon Dollery.

 

The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales signed the TUC’s Dying to Work Charter on 7 February 2019.

Christopher Catling the Secretary of the Royal Commission said:

The Royal Commission welcomes the opportunity to sign up to the TUC’s Dying to Work Charter.   We fully support this initiative and by signing the Charter we are showing our commitment to providing a working environment where all our staff feel fully supported, particularly if diagnosed with a terminal illness.

Prospect, the union which represents the Commission’s staff, warmly welcomes the signing of the Dying to Work Charter, a TUC campaign which began in 2016. The Charter is part of the TUC’s wider Dying to Work campaign which seeks greater security for terminally ill workers where they cannot be dismissed because of their condition.

Learn more about the Dying to Work Campaign.

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Royal Commission Archive & Library Bulletin of Newly Catalogued Material – January 2019 https://rcahmw.gov.uk/royal-commission-archive-library-bulletin-of-newly-catalogued-material-january-2019/ https://rcahmw.gov.uk/royal-commission-archive-library-bulletin-of-newly-catalogued-material-january-2019/#respond Fri, 01 Feb 2019 09:51:01 +0000 https://rcahmw.gov.uk/?p=14286 Welcome to the latest monthly edition of the National Monuments Record of Wales (NMRW) Archives and Library Bulletin which lists all newly catalogued material. The archival items, library books and journal articles are all available to view in our public reading room. The full archive catalogue is available on Coflein and contains digital copies of many of the items listed. All publications may be found on our online Library Catalogue.

Our Library and reading room is open:
Monday – Friday 09.30 – 16.00,
Wednesday 10.30 – 16.30.
An appointment is advisable.

 

Archives

Romany Monument to Ernest Burton, Moel y Golfa DS2018_437_002 C.640158 NPRN: 407823

Romany Monument to Ernest Burton, Moel y Golfa DS2018_437_002 C.640158 NPRN: 407823

 

Archaeological Reports/Evaluations (non Trust)
Digital archaeological research records relating to excavation and survey at Plas Bryncir: Ref. AENT40_30
Covering dates: 2012-2013

Cadw Monuments in Care Collection
Digital copies of nitrate negatives relating to: Basingwerk Abbey, Caernarfon Castle, Caernarfon Town Walls, Bronllys Castle, Barclodiad y Gawres, Caer y Twr, Caer Leb: Ref. CMC_PA_539 – CMC_PA_555
Covering dates: 1927-1960

Cadw Registered Files Collection
Closed registered files in the CAM series: Ref. No. CAM
Covering dates: 1978- 1998

Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust Reports
Relating to various archaeological activities in the Clwyd-Powys area: Ref. CPAT17/16 – CPAT17/73
Covering dates: 2012-2018

Clwydian Range Archaeology Group Archive: Ref. CRAG
Digital archaeological archives relating to projects undertaken by Clwydian Range Archaeological Group
Covering dates: 2017-2018

Emergency Recording Collection
Digital photo record (with floor plan) relating to Gelli fawr Isaf, Cwmbelan: Ref. ERC2019_001
Covering dates: 2018

RCAHMW Colour Oblique Digital Aerial Photographs
Digital aerial photographs relating to various sites in Wales: Ref. AP2019_001-005 – AP2019_077
Covering dates: 2015

 

Detail of carving, St Padarn’s Church, Llanbadarn Fawr (Powys) DS2012_389_007 C.564519 NPRN: 236

Detail of carving, St Padarn’s Church, Llanbadarn Fawr (Powys) DS2012_389_007 C.564519 NPRN: 236

 

Books

All our books and journals can be found on the Royal Commission’s Library Catalogue and viewed in our Library and Search Room.

  • Brown, Peter. 2018. The Shopshire Union canal: from the Mersey to the Midlands and Mid-Wales. Market Drayton[?]: railway and Canal Historical Society.
  • Carugh1, U & Visone, M. [Editors]. 2018. Time frames: conservation policies for twentieth-century architectural heritage. London: Routledge.
  • Childs, Jeff. 2018. The parish of Llangyfelach: landed estates, farms and families. Swansea[?]: Jeff Childs and West Glamorgan Archive Service.
  • Evans, David Gareth. 2018. The buildings of Ruthin. Wrexham: Bridge Books.
  • Gwyndaf, Robin. 2017. Cofio Hedd Wyn: Atgofion Cyfeillion a Detholiad o’i Gerdd. Talybont: Y Lolfa.
  • Fairclough, Oliver. 2018. The Llanthony valley: a borderland. Maidenhead: The Landmark Trust.
  • Tomos, Merfyn Wyn. 2018. Diwydiant a Masnach Dolgellau Industry and Commerce. Llandysul: Gwasg Gomer.
  • Watts, David. 2017. Edward Jeffreys, healing evangelist: his story, movement and legacy. Stourbridge: Transformations Publications.

 

Offprints from the Vernacular Architecture Group Library

  • Barley, Maurice. 1963. The long-house and laithe-house: a study of the house and byre homestead in Wales and the West Riding, book chapter off-print from Culture and Environment: essays in honour of Sir Cyril Fox, XVI, pp. 479-501. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Born, Ernest and Horn, Walter. 1981. French Market Halls in Timber: Medieval and Postmedieval, off -print from Institute of Archaeology and Office of the Chancellor, University of California, (?), pp. 197-239. Los Angeles: Institute of Archaeology and Office of the Chancellor, University of California.
  • Currie, C.R.J. 1972. Scarf-Joints in the North Berkshire and Oxford area, off-print from Oxoniensia, Volume XXXVII, pp. 177-186. (?) Oxoniensia.
  • Fletcher, John. 1968. Crucks in the West Berkshire and Oxford Region, off-print from Oxoniensia, Volume XXXIII, pp. 71-88. (?) Oxoniensia.
  • Fletcher, John. 1975. The medieval hall at Lewknor, off- print from Oxoniensia, Volume Xl, pp. 247-253. Oxford: The Oxford Architectural and Historical Society, Ashmolean Museum.
  • Hewett, Cecil. 1966. Jettying and floor-framing in Medieval Essex, photocopy from Medieval Archaeology, volume 10, pp. 89-112. York: Society for Medieval Archaeology.
  • Jones, Stanley R. 1959. “Tir-Y-Coed” A fifteenth century farmhouse in the parish of Melverley, Salop. off-print from Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological Society, Vol. 56, pp. 149– 57. Shrewsbury: Shropshire Archaeological and Historical Society.
  • Jope, E.M. and Pantin, W.A. 1958. The Clarendon Hotel Oxford, off-print from Oxoniensia, Volume XXIII, pp. 1-129. (?) Oxoniensia.
  • McCann, John. 1996. An eighteenth-century dovecote at Stewkley, off print from Records of Buckinghamshire, Volume 36, pp. 120-128. Aylesbury: Buckinghamshire Archaeological Society.
  • McDowall, R.W. 1972. Uses of photogrammetry in the study of Buildings, off-print from Photogrammetric Record, Volume 7, issue 40, pp. 390–404. New York & London: Photogrammetric Record.
  • Meirion-Jones, Gwyn I. 1978. The Sunken-Floored Hut in Brittany, off-print from Medieval Village Research Group, Twenty-sixth Annual Report, pp. 32-34. (?) Medieval Village Research Group.
  • Mercer, E. 1954. The Houses of the Gentry, off-print from Past and Present, Volume V, Number 1, pp. 11-32. (?) Past and Present.
  • Michelmore, D.J.H. 1974, A preliminary typology for Pennine aisled barns with king-post, off print from The Brigantian, journal of the Huddersfield and district Archaeological Society, pp. 15 – 17, No.3. Huddersfield: Huddersfield and District Archaeological society.
  • Moran, Madge. [?]. the medieval parts of Plowden hall, off-print from Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological Society, Volume LIX, pp. 264-271. Shrewsbury: Shropshire Archaeological Society.
  • Munby, J. 1975. A fifteenth century Wealden house in Oxford, off print from Oxoniensia, Volume XXXIX, pp. 73-76. Oxford: The Oxford Architectural and Historical Society, Ashmolean Museum.
  • Munby, J. 1975. 126 High Street: the archaeology and history of an Oxford house, off print from Oxoniensia, Volume XL, pp. 254-308. Oxford: The Oxford Architectural and Historical Society, Ashmolean Museum
  • Munby, Julian. 1978. Tackley’s inn and three medieval houses in Oxford, off print from Oxoniensia, Volume XLIII, pp. 123-169. Oxford: The Oxford Architectural and Historical Society, Ashmolean Museum.
  • Pantin, W.A. 1963. Some Medieval English Town Houses, off-print from Culture and Environment: Essays in Honour of Sir Cyril Fox, (?) pp. 445-478. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • Pantin, W.A. 1958. The Clarendon Hotel, Oxford. Part II: The Buildings, off-print from Oxoniensia, Volume XXIII, pp. 84-129. (?) Oxoniensia.
  • Ryan, Carole and Moran, Madge. 1985. The Old House Farm, Loppington, off-print from Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological Society, Volume LXIII, pp. 11-16. (?) Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological Society.
  • Smith, J.T. 1963. The long-house in Monmouthshire: a re-appraisal, book chapter off-print from Culture and Environment: essays in honour of Sir Cyril Fox, XVI, pp. 389-414. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Smith, P. 1963. The long-house and the laithe-house: a study of the house and byre homestead in Wales and the West Riding, book chapter off-print from Culture and Environment: essays in honour of Sir Cyril Fox, XVI, pp. 415-437. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Smith, W.John. 1986. Old Bent house: a traditional Pennine building, article photocopy from Pennine Magazine, Vol. 6:3, pp. 16 -18. Hebden Bridge: Pennine Heritage.
  • Stell, Geoffrey. 1982. Some small farms and cottages in Latheron parish, Caithness, book chapter photocopy from Caithness: acultural crossroads, pp. 86–114. Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies and Edina Press.
  • Tonkin, J.W. 1966. The white house, Aston Munslow off- print from Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological Society, Vol. 58, pp. 1-13. Shrewsbury: Shropshire Archaeological and Historical Society.
  • Trench, J.C. & Fenley, P. 1995. Elmodesham house: an Amersham landmark for three centuries, off print from Records of Buckinghamshire, Volume 37, pp. 141-158. Aylesbury: Buckinghamshire Archaeological Society.
  • Walker, Bruce. 1977. The influence of fixed farm machinery on farm building design in eastern Scotland in the late 18th and 19th centuries, off print from The Archaeology of Scotland: Scottish Archaeological forum 8, pp.52–74. Edinburgh: Scottish Industrial Archaeology.
  • Walton, James. 1981. The South African Kapstylhuis and some European Counterparts, with additional photographs of Madeiran barracas, off-print from Restorica, Number 10, pp. 2-8. (?). Restorica.

 

Journals

  • Antiquity Volume 92 (Number 366 December 2018).
  • Cambridge Antiquarian Society Proceedings Volume CVII (2018).
  • Cartographiti Issue 95 (Autumn 2018).
  • Current Archaeology Volume 347 (February 2019).
  • Essex Historic Buildings Group Newsletter Volume 1 (January 2019).
  • Georgian Issue 2 (Autumn 2018).
  • Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society Volume 084 (2018).
  • Railway and Canal Historical Society Volume 477 (February 2019).
  • Royal Society of Art July 1963 – August 1965.
  • Welsh Mills Society Newsletter Volume 134 (January 2019).
  • WHGT Bulletin Issue 76 (Autumn 2018).

 

Journals: Current Awareness

  • Cartographiti Issue 95 (Autumn 2018) p.4 exhibition to mark the 450th anniversary of the death of Humphrey Llwyd who produced the first map of Wales, at the National Library of Wales 19th January to 29 June 2019.
  • Current Archaeology Volume 347 (February 2019) p.8, News in brief – Iron age site found in Wales – A preliminary excavation has revealed a previously unknown Iron Age settlement in Pembrokeshire.
  • p.10 Winners of 2018 Heritage Angel Awards announced – Renovations at Insole Court won the people’s choice award in Wales.
  • p.15 Excavating the CA archive – review of CA 130 (August 1992) when the Great Orme Mine Company was set up to carry out explorations of the Bronze Age mines and present them to the public through the visitor centre.
  • p.20 Time-honoured places: defining the Neolithic sense of history, Christopher Catling – Capel Garmon chambered long cairn sited as an example of community repositories for human remains representing continuity due to their multiple phases of construction and use.
  • p.62 Sherds, Christopher Catling – Art and Archaeology – Art and the Archaeological Imagination: Braving the Dragons Conference 27th and 28th February 2019, Aberystwyth, www.bravingthedragons.com.
  • p.63 Heritage Angels – Cardigan Castle, shortlisted for 2018 Heritage Angel Award. Images showing before and after the rescue project.
  • p.66 Odd Socs – Insol Court Trust – how the mansion was saved.
  • Georgian Issue 2 (Autumn 2018) p.21 Casework – Tan y wal, Llandudno, Foley House, Pembrokeshire and Middle Esgair Cottage, Dolwen, Powys.
  • p.22 Wales Case Study – Gwrych Castle, Abergele.

 

View of Irish Bridge, Number 27 Llangollen Canal DS2007_038_001 C.839744 NPRN: 405798

View of Irish Bridge, Number 27 Llangollen Canal DS2007_038_001 C.839744 NPRN: 405798

 

Contact us

If you have any comments or enquiries, please feel free to contact us:

NMRW Library and Enquiries Service
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales
Penglais Road
Aberystwyth
Ceredigion SY23 3BU

Telephone: +44 (0)1970 621200
Fax: +44 (0)1970 627701
Email: nmr.wales@rcahmw.gov.uk
Website: rcahmw.gov.uk

Croesewir gohebiaeth yn y Gymraeg a’r Saesneg | Correspondence welcomed in Welsh and English

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The King’s Rent Hole: a Radnorshire Folk-Tradition https://rcahmw.gov.uk/the-kings-rent-hole-a-radnorshire-folk-tradition/ https://rcahmw.gov.uk/the-kings-rent-hole-a-radnorshire-folk-tradition/#respond Mon, 14 Jan 2019 13:23:22 +0000 https://rcahmw.gov.uk/?p=14099 The Royal Commission’s early inventories offer fascinating insights into the historic built environment in early-twentieth-century Wales and how it was perceived by contemporaries. While their focus on medieval and pre-medieval structures may seem limited today, they also contain many unexpected gems. One such gem from the Radnorshire Inventory (1913) is a fascinating example of early-twentieth-century folk-culture: the King’s Rent Hole.

 

Members of the community gathered at the King’s Rent Hole in 1913.

Members of the community gathered at the King’s Rent Hole in 1913.

 

The weather was stormy on 20 January 1913. Snow lay on the hills as Edward Owen, the first Secretary of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments and constructions in Wales and Monmouthshire (now known as the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales), visited a site near Tyn-yr-ynn (NPRN: 423735) in Llanbister parish. The Commission’s investigators had already surveyed the parish in June and July 1911, but Owen’s interest, as the Inventory states, was ‘not so much in the place as the quaint ceremony annually performed thereat’. Owen described the importance of this ceremony in his write-up of the day, preserved among his papers in the National Library of Wales, as ‘a survival of Welsh tribal custom into the English manorial period’. Whether the ritual constituted such as survival is debatable, but the event he recorded is nevertheless an important example of Welsh folk-life.

 

The hole was a roughly oval depression 2m in diameter at its longest axis and around 1.2m deep, approached by a trench roughly 2.75m long and 0.6m wide.

The hole was a roughly oval depression 2m in diameter at its longest axis and around 1.2m deep, approached by a trench roughly 2.75m long and 0.6m wide.

 

Every Hilary Monday (the Monday following 13 January) the people of the Crown manor of Swydd Ugre gathered to choose who among them would collect the money known as the ‘King’s rents’ for the following year. The ceremony began around 11.30am with the previous year’s collector declaring that all rents had been collected under his tenure. He would then, if seeking re-election, proceed bareheaded down a trench repeating a formulaic speech detailing the amount he would collect from each family. Reaching the end of his speech and the trench, he entered a hole dug into the side of the hill where he awaited other contenders to attempt to underbid him. These proceeded with the same ceremony until the lowest bidder was found. The contest ended at noon, when the successful candidate was joined in the hole by four witnesses and a ‘King’s witness’. These men would then place their hands on top of each other, with the King’s witness’s hands above and below the stack, and swear that the new collector would do his duty. The form and liturgy of the ceremony were consistent. Thomas Williams, a local octogenarian who had been attending from the age of ten, confirmed to Owen that there had never been any deviation from the formula.

 

The successful candidate for 1913, with his witnesses and the King’s Witness, swears to deliver the King’s Rent.

The successful candidate for 1913, with his witnesses and the King’s Witness, swears to deliver the King’s Rent.

 

It was not to last, however, and the practice was discontinued in the 1920s, when the hole was filled in. Other similar ceremonies had ceased before the twentieth century. The Radnorshire Inventory notes that a similar ritual had been formerly performed at a place called ‘The Holey Piece’ in Llangynllo parish. While it lasted, however, the King’s Rent Hole was a delightful part of the rich New Year’s folk-culture of Wales, as integral a part of the ritual year to the communities which performed it as the Mari Lwyd or calennig were to others.

 

This 1958 footage of the King’s Rent Ceremony is part of the ITV Cymru/Wales Archive at the National Library of Wales:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-xZa3lnk2fM 

 

Works Consulted and Further Reading:

‘Edward Owen Papers: Rough transcripts of miscellaneous documents relating to the counties of Pembrokeshire and Radnorshire (St Davids etc.),’ National Library of Wales, MS. 18065E.

Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales, An Inventory of the Ancient Monuments in Wales and Monmouthshire. III. County of Radnor (London: HMSO, 1913), esp. p. 68.

W.H. Howse, Radnorshire (Hereford: E. J. Thurston, 1949), pp. 214–15.

J. Moseley, ‘Parish of Llanbister’, Radnorshire Transactions, III (1933), 41–45 (esp. 43–44).

Roy Palmer, The Folklore of Radnorshire (Little Logaston: Logaston Press, 2001), esp. pp. 235–36.

For other New Year’s customs in Wales, see Trefor M. Owen, Welsh Folk Customs (Llandysul: Gomer Press, 1987 (org. pub. 1959), esp. pp. 41–69.

Images from ‘Fig 30 – Llanbister: The King’s Rent Hole (no. 267)’ in RCAHMW, Inventory of the Ancient Monuments in … County of Radnor, between pp. 68–69.

 

Adam N. Coward

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