CBHC / RCAHMW https://rcahmw.gov.uk On the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales Mon, 17 Dec 2018 12:57:26 +0000 en-GB hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.9 Selection of 10 Historical Sites in Aberystwyth https://rcahmw.gov.uk/selection-of-10-historical-sites-in-aberystwyth/ https://rcahmw.gov.uk/selection-of-10-historical-sites-in-aberystwyth/#respond Mon, 17 Dec 2018 10:40:53 +0000 https://rcahmw.gov.uk/?p=13904 Boasting of a Iron Age hillfort, ruined medieval castle, Gothic and Neo Gothic architecture, Victorian and Edwardian buildings, Funicular Railway, Museum, the The National Library of Wales, Ceredigion Archives, a harbour, Celtic crosses and not forgetting the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales, Aberystwyth is undoubtedly home to some of the best historical sites in west Wales.

View a selection of 10 historical sites in Aberystwyth

PLAS CRUG TOWER (Demolished)
▶ http://www.coflein.gov.uk/en/site/35123/details/plas-crug-tower

 

ABERYSTWYTH HARBOUR
▶ 
http://www.coflein.gov.uk/en/site/34174/details/aberystwyth-harbour

 

ABERYSTWYTH RAILWAY STATION
▶ http://www.coflein.gov.uk/en/site/34676/details/aberystwyth-railway-station-cambrian-coast-line-alexandra-road-aberystwyth

 

ROYAL PIER AND PAVILION, ABERYSTWYTH
▶ http://www.coflein.gov.uk/en/site/34175/details/royal-pier-and-pavilion-aberystwyth

 

THE COLISEUM, ABERYSTWYTH
▶ http://www.coflein.gov.uk/en/site/23271/details/the-coliseum-terrace-road-aberystwyth

 

OLD COLLEGE, ABERYSTWYTH
▶ http://www.coflein.gov.uk/en/site/23303/details/yr-hen-coleg-aberystwyth

 

TOWN HALL, ABERYSTWYTH
▶ http://www.coflein.gov.uk/en/site/23300/details/town-hall-queens-road-aberystwyth

 

NATIONAL LIBRARY OF WALES, ABERYSTWTH
▶ http://www.coflein.gov.uk/en/site/23293/details/national-library-of-wales-aberystwyth

 

PENDINAS HILLFORT, ABERYSTWYTH
▶ http://www.coflein.gov.uk/en/site/92236/details/pendinas-hillfort-aberystwyth

 

ABERYSTWYTH CASTLE
▶ http://www.coflein.gov.uk/en/site/86/details/aberystwyth-castle

 

EARLY MEDIEVAL CROSSES, ST PADARN’S CHURCH, LLANBADARN FAWR
▶ http://www.coflein.gov.uk/en/site/308695/details/llanbadarn-fawr-early-medieval-crosses-preserved-st-padarns-church

 

VIEW: 657 HISTORICAL SITES IN ABERYSTWYTH
▶ 
http://www.coflein.gov.uk/en/site/search/result?PCOMMUNITY=123&SEARCH_MODE=COMPLEX_SEARCH&view=map

 

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The End of an Era: the Closure of the M4 Toll-booths https://rcahmw.gov.uk/the-end-of-an-era-the-closure-of-the-m4-toll-booths/ https://rcahmw.gov.uk/the-end-of-an-era-the-closure-of-the-m4-toll-booths/#respond Fri, 14 Dec 2018 10:10:55 +0000 https://rcahmw.gov.uk/?p=13957 The well-known M4 tolls plaza will cease to exist from Monday 17 December 2018. Fees have applied to motor vehicles using the bridges for some 52 years and Monday will see the reopening of the bridge with a formal ceremony, as motor cars and transport hauliers enter Wales (Westbound) toll-free along the M4.

It is believed to be the first time for about 400 years that crossing the Severn estuary by ferry or bridge will be free.

M4 Tolls Plaza

M4 Tolls Plaza

M4 Tolls Plaza

 

Severn Crossing

The Severn Crossing opened 8 September 1966.

The Severn Crossing opened 8 September 1966.

 

The first Severn Crossing took five years to construct (1961-66) and was to the designs of Mott, Hay & Anderson, Freeman Fox & Partners. A consortium of contractors built the Severn Bridge, comprising Sir William Arrol and Co Ltd (Glasgow), Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Co Ltd (Darlington), and Dorman Long Bridge and Engineering Ltd (Middlesbrough). It spanned the River Severn and River Wye between Aust, south Gloucestershire, and Chepstow, Monmouthshire, and replaced the Aust Ferry.

Profile: Total length (including the Wye cable-stayed bridge): 2,992m (9,816ft), built at a cost of £8 million. It was opened on 8 September 1966 by Queen Elizabeth II, and on 26 November 1999 it was given Grade I listing by English Heritage. The Gateway to Wales is mostly in Gloucestershire.

Site details: Severn Crossing

 

Second Severn Crossing (Prince of Wales Bridge)

The Second Severn Crossing opened, 5 June 1996.

The Second Severn Crossing opened, 5 June 1996.

 

Building the Second River Crossing took four years (from 26 April 1992-96), and it was to the design of Sir William Halcrow & Partners and the French civil engineers, SEEE, and architect Ronald Weeks of the Percy Thomas Partnership as architectural consultants. It was constructed by John Laing Construction and French construction company GTM-Entrepose. It is further southwest than the Severn Bridge and marks the lower limit of the River Severn and the start of the Severn Estuary.

Profile: Total length‎: ‎5,128 m (16,824 ft) and some 37m (121 ft) above the water, built at a cost of £332 million. The suspension bridge was inaugurated on 5 June 1996 by HRH The Prince of Wales.

It was renamed the Prince of Wales Bridge at a ceremony on 2 July 2018.

Fact: From 5 June 1966, fees have risen from 2s 6d (£0.125) per car to £6.70 (1 January 2017) to today’s figure of £5.60 (8 January 2018).

Site details: Second Severn Crossing (Prince of Wales Bridge)

With an estimated 25 million journeys a year made across both bridges, the M4 toll-booths to Wales have become a familiar sight for commuters and visitors alike as they pay and wait for the barrier to rise. However, from Monday 17 December, drivers from England will be able to explore Wales without paying a toll.

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Pup rescue – All at sea, Lotte and the U 91 https://rcahmw.gov.uk/pup-rescue-all-at-sea-lotte-and-the-u-91/ https://rcahmw.gov.uk/pup-rescue-all-at-sea-lotte-and-the-u-91/#respond Wed, 12 Dec 2018 15:53:20 +0000 https://rcahmw.gov.uk/?p=13906 In spring of 1918, a German U-boat, U 91, commanded by Alfred von Glasenapp, was patrolling the Irish Sea. The U-boat had left port at Heligoland on 10 April 1918 and was having a prolific run. By 25 April, she had already sunk five vessels. On 26 April, the U-boat encountered the ETHEL, a wooden schooner, 19 miles off the coast of Pembrokeshire, carrying a cargo of coal from Cardiff to New Ross. ETHEL’s crew spotted the U-boat and hastily abandoned ship, escaping into the lifeboats.

The U 91 drew alongside ETHEL to attach detonators and then climbed aboard to search the ship for provisions. The unpublished, private diary of U 91’s commander Alfred von Glasenapp tells us that to their delight, the submariners found meat, dried fish, ropes and oil cloth. Glasenapp also fulfilled a long-held ambition to capture a ship’s bell. On departing the ship, the crew set fire to the detonators, which exploded and caused ETHEL to sink.

There were no casualties from the sinking, but on abandoning the vessel, in their haste, and in fear of their lives, the British crew left behind their ship’s dog, a small rough coated terrier. This is recorded in the diary as the nicest catch’. The German crew promptly adopted the dog and renamed her Lotte. She is described later in the diary as ‘a cute animal that is bringing joy to everyone and is getting used to submarine life very quickly’.

Lotte stayed with the submariners for the remainder of their successful patrol around Wales where they went on to sink the GRESHAM, WALPAS, ORONSA, DAMÃO and RAYMOND in quick succession.

 

Drawing of Lotte with two prisoners on board the U 91 from a historical photograph. Source: ‘SM U-91 Bilder vom UBoot’, Uboot-Recherche.de, Stiftung Traditionsarchiv Unterseeboote, 2018.

Drawing of Lotte with two prisoners on board the U 91 from a historical photograph. Source: ‘SM U-91 Bilder vom UBoot’, Uboot-Recherche.de, Stiftung Traditionsarchiv Unterseeboote, 2018.

 

Von Glasenapp’s diary conveniently forgets to mention that animals were strictly verboten on submarines. Neither did the military file include pictures, but we have found a photograph of Lotte aboard the U 91 with two prisoners, Mr Maine from the LADONIA and Mr Goodwin from BARON HERRIES.

On their journey home, Glasenapp records that on 29 April the weather was calm, and a large proportion of the crew were on deck, sitting between them was Lotte, ‘everyone’s darling’.

The last entry we have in the diary recalls the welcome the crew received, which was quieter than they expected as the submarine arrived early. Some cheerful hoorays reached them from one of the anchored accommodation ships, the PREUSSEN, and the chief of the flotilla, Kap Walther Forstmann, came aboard, gathered everyone around to congratulate them on being the most successful U-boat in four weeks. According to Glasenapp, Lotte ‘disturbed the ceremonial character of the situation with her wild swishing about’.

We know that von Glasenapp and the crew of the U 91 went on a further two patrols, sinking yet more vessels and von Glasenapp ended the war a successful and decorated U-boat commander. He is ranked 24th out of 498 U-boat commanders in terms of number of ships sunk or damaged. The two U-boats he commanded sunk 52 ships and damaged a further six. He survived the war and died in 1958 aged 75.

We do not know what became of Lotte after the U-boat returned to Germany, or indeed how she came to be aboard ETHEL when she departed from Cardiff earlier that month.

 

Can you help us complete Lotte’s story?
If you can help us trace Lotte or any of the other dogs involved in the U-boat war 1914-1918, please get in touch by emailing:
LlongauU@cbhc.gov.uk / UBoat@rcahmw.gov.uk or calling 01970 621200

For updates on the project, have a look at our blog on this website or follow us on social media.
Twitter: @LlongauUBoat
Facebookhttps://www.facebook.com/llongauUboat/

 

 

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Royal Commission Archive & Library Bulletin of Newly Catalogued Material – November 2018 https://rcahmw.gov.uk/royal-commission-archive-library-bulletin-of-newly-catalogued-material-november-2018/ https://rcahmw.gov.uk/royal-commission-archive-library-bulletin-of-newly-catalogued-material-november-2018/#respond Wed, 05 Dec 2018 16:01:52 +0000 https://rcahmw.gov.uk/?p=13590 Welcome to the latest monthly edition of the National Monuments Record of Wales (NMRW) Archives and Library Bulletin which lists all newly catalogued material. The archival items, library books and journal articles are all available to view in our public reading room. The full archive catalogue is available on Coflein and contains digital copies of many of the items listed. All publications may be found on our online Library Catalogue.

Our Library and reading room is open:
Monday – Friday 09.30 – 16.00,
Wednesday 10.30 – 16.30.
An appointment is advisable.

 

Archives

C.J. Spurgeon Collection: Ref. No. CJS02/06
Research notes, reference cards, map extracts, plans from various sources, copies of relevant material, and correspondence regarding sites referenced as RS (Rejected Sites): as published in the Glamorgan Inventory, Volume III, Part 1b – ‘Later Castles from 1217 to the Present’. First published in 2000.
Covering dates: c.1963-1991

C.J. Spurgeon Collection: Ref. No. CJS02/07
Research notes, reference cards, map extracts, plans from various sources, copies of relevant material and correspondence regarding sites referenced as FO (Forts and other Post Medieval Fortifications). These records were prepared for inclusion in the Glamorgan Inventory, Volume III, Part 1b – ‘Later Castles from 1217 to the Present’, but subsequently not included.
Covering dates: c.1992-1995

C.J. Spurgeon Collection: Ref. No. CJS02/08
research notes, reference cards, map extracts plans from various sources, copies of relevant material and correspondence regarding sites referenced as TD (Town Defences). These records were prepared for inclusion in the Glamorgan Inventory, Volume III, Part 1b – ‘Later Castles from 1217 to the Present’, but subsequently not included.
Covering dates: [n.d.]

C.J. Spurgeon Collection: Ref. No. CJS02/09
Survey notes, plottings, drawings, and black & white prints mainly of Caerphilly and Swansea castles. Also includes long-hand drafts of texts for chapters in the ‘Later Castles’ publication.
Covering dates: [n.d.]

C.J. Spurgeon Collection: Ref. No. CJS02/10
Long-hand text regarding sites referenced as TD (Town Defences). These records were prepared for inclusion in the Glamorgan Inventory, Volume III, Part 1b – ‘Later Castles from 1217 to the Present’, but subsequently not included. Also includes texts on Oystermouth and St Donat’s castles.
Covering dates: [n.d.]

C.J. Spurgeon Collection: Ref. No. CJS02/11
Drafts and edited drafts of sections mainly in the ‘Later Castles’ publication.
Covering dates: [n.d.]

 

RCAHMW colour oblique photograph of North Wales Counties Hospital, Denbigh, 2011. AP_2011_3790 C.912909 NPRN: 96571

RCAHMW colour oblique photograph of North Wales Counties Hospital, Denbigh, 2011. AP_2011_3790 C.912909 NPRN: 96571

 

Emergency Recording Collection: NPRN 96571
Reports, plans, and photographs relating to North Wales Hospital, Denbigh.
Covering dates: 2018

Foundations Archaeology Projects Archive: Ref. No. FAPA
Project archives relating to a number of archaeological investigations and evaluations carried out by Foundations Archaeology.
Covering dates: 1999 – 2010

Howard J. Thomas Slide Collection: Ref. No. HJT
Colour Slides produced by Howard J. Thomas, relating to various sites in Wales
Covering dates: 1970-1990

Ordnance Survey Vertical Aerial Photography Collection
Black and white aerial photographs of various areas in Wales
Covering dates: 1966 – 1995

 

Aerial view of the Cwm-Fforch-Wen Enclosures, north of Ystradgynlais: Paul R. Davis, 1st November 2018. PRD_02_1902 C.647759 NPRN: 423589

Aerial view of the Cwm-Fforch-Wen Enclosures, north of Ystradgynlais: Paul R. Davis, 1st November 2018. PRD_02_1902 C.647759 NPRN: 423589

 

Paul R. Davis Collection: Ref. No, PRD_02_1902 – PRD_02_1915
Colour aerial photographs, and maps, relating to various sites in Wales
Covering dates: November 2018

RCAHMW Colour Oblique Digital Aerial Photographs: Ref. No. AP2018_610 – AP2018_659
Oblique aerial photographs, showing various sites in Wales, taken as part of the Royal Commission’s programme of archaeological aerial reconnaissance
Covering dates: 2015

Stanley R. Jones Collection: Ref. No. SRJC
Collection of measured drawings showing buildings in Mid Wales produced by Stanley R. Jones
Covering dates: 1950-2000

 

Books

All our books and journals can be found on the Royal Commission’s Library Catalogue and viewed in our Library and Search Room.

  • Anderson, D. 1982. Coal, a pictorial history of the British coal industry. Newton Abbot: David and Charles.
  • Firth Cleveland Ropes Ltd. [?]. Wire ropes. Sheffield: Firth Cleveland Ltd.
  • English Heritage. 2004. Save our streets. Swindon: English Heritage.
  • Hopson, Mary. The Roman Catholic burial ground and former church at Coed Anghred, Skenfrith, Gwent.  Llanrothal, Monmouth: Tregate Press.
  • Hutton, Barbara and Martin, Joyce. 1986. Doorways in the Dales. York: North Yorkshire and Cleveland Vernacular Buildings Study Group.
  • Lewis, David T.R. 2018. The Vaughan [Earlsof Carbery] and Cambell [Earls and Thanes of Cawdor] families of Golden Grove Carmarthenshire. Erwhen, Carmarthenshire: David T.R. Lewis.
  • Mason, E. 1951. Practical coal mining for miners. London: Virtue and Company Ltd.
  • National Coal Board. 1968. Setting supports underground. London: H.M.S.O.
  • National Coal Board. 1973. Tracklaying for underground haulage. London: National Coal Board Mining Department.
  • National Coal Board. 1976. Colliery electrician. London: National Coal Board Industrial Training Branch.
  • National Coal Board. 1976. Transport underground: Part 2, moving men and supplies. London: National Coal Board Industrial Training Branch.
  • National Coal Board. 1977. Basic mechanical engineering. London: National Coal Board Industrial Training Branch.
  • National Coal Board. 1979. Coal its origin and occurrence. London: National Coal Board Mining Department.
  • National Coal Board. 1981. Pit ventilation. London: National Coal Board Industrial Training Branch.
  • National Coal Board. 1982. Armoured conveyors. London: National Coal Board Industrial Training Branch.
  • National Coal Board. 1985. Pumps and pumping. London: National Coal Board Industrial Training Branch.
  • National Coal Board. 1989. British coalmining: an introduction. Burton-on-Trent: British Coal Technical Department.
  • Neath Borough Council. 1964. The restoration of the Norman castle of Neath. Neath: Borough of neath.
  • Presbyterian Church. 1929. The book of the jubilee fund: a book commemorating the work of the Jubilee Church Extension Fund of the Presbyterian Church of England, 1926-1929. London: Jubilee Church Extension Fund.
  • Rowlands, Dorothy Howard. 1949. Coal: yesterday, to-day and to-morrow. London: Harrap.
  • Russell, C. 1973. Coal, the basis of nineteenth-century technology. Bletchley: Open University Press.
  • Thomas, W. Gerwyn. 1969. Coal mining in Wales. Cardiff: National Museum of Wales.
  • Welton, Ann & John. 2010. The story of Montgomery. Woonton: Logaston Press.
  • Williams, Herbert. 1975. Battles in Wales. Cardiff: John Jones Cardiff Ltd.
  • Williams, Ifor. 1945. Enau lleoedd. Lerpwl: Gwasg y Brython.
  • Offprints from the Vernacular Architecture Group Library                          
  • Barley, M.W. 1975. Flore’s house, Oakham, Rutland, off-print from Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society, Volume 50, pp. 37- 40. Leicester: Leicestershire Archaeology and Historical Society.
  • Dent, J.S. 1977. Recent Excavations on the Site of Stockport Castle, off-print from The Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, Volume 79, pp. 1-13. Wilmslow: Richmond Press Ltd.
  • Eden, P.M.G. 1972. Vernacular architecture, off-print from Leicester and its region, chapter 26, pp.578- 589. Leicester: Leicester University Press for the Local Committee of the British Association
  • Fraser Darling. 1955. The social situation, chapter from book West Highland survey, pp. 288 – 302. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Hill, Nick. 2003. 10-14 Churchgate: Hallaton’s lost manor House?, off-print from Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society, Volume 77, pp. 12-34. Leicester: Leicestershire Archaeology and Historical Society.
  • Hill, Nick. 2001. The manor house, Melbourne: the development of Leicestershire’s earliest manor house, off-print from the Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society, Volume 75, pp. 36-61. Leicester: Leicestershire Archaeology and History Society.
  • Hunter, James. The years of recovery, chapter from book, The making of the crofting community, pp. 111 -113. Edinburgh: John Donald.
  • Maclean, Charles. 1972. A simple life, chapter from book, Island on the edge of the world: the story of St. Kilda, pp. 65- 68. Edinburgh: Canongate.
  • Macdonald, Donald. 1978. Housing, chapter from book Lewis: a history of the island, pp. 57 – 63. Edinburgh: Gordon wright Publishing.
  • Maxwell, Sir John Stirling. 1938. Small houses and cottages, chapter from book, Shrines and homes of Scotland, pp. 215 – 225. London: Alexander Maclehose.
  • Plant, Marjorie, ‘The Home and its Plenishing’, pp. 19-60, chapter from The Domestic Life of Scotland in the Eighteenth Century, by Marjorie Plant. 1952. Edinburgh: University Press.
  • Rickman, T.H. 1972. A hall house at Shepshed, Leicestershire, off print from the Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society, Volume 47, pp. 51-54. Leicester: Leicestershire Archaeology and Historical Society.
  • Singleton, William, A. (?). Traditional Domestic Architecture in the South Manchester Region, Part I, off-print from The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, Volume LVI. pp. 7-32. London: Sherratt and Hughes.
  • Singleton, William, A. (?). Traditional Domestic Architecture in the South Manchester Region, Part II, off-print from The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, Volume LVII. pp. 57-89. London: Sherratt and Hughes.
  • Singleton, William, A. 1952. The Traditional House-Types in Rural Lancashire and Cheshire, off-print from The Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Volume 104. pp. 75-91. Liverpool: Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire.
  • Smith, W. J. 1977. The Staircase Café, Stockport, off-print from The Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, Volume 79, pp. 14-20. Wilmslow: Richmond Press Ltd.
  • Tattersall, Joan E. 1963. An eighteenth-century shippon at Accrington, off print from Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Volume 115, pp. 177-183. Liverpool: Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society.
  • Taylor, Robert F. 1965. Three Cruck Buildings in Lancashire and Cheshire, off print from Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Volume 117, pp.33-57. England: Chadwyck-Healey.
  • Wade-Martins, Peter, Excavations at North Elmham, 1967-8: An Interim Report, off-print from Norfolk Archaeology, Volume XXXIV, Part IV, pp.352-397. (?)
  • Wade-Martins, Peter, Excavations at North Elmham, 1969: An Interim Report, off-print from Norfolk Archaeology, Volume XXXV, Part I, pp.25-78. (?).
  • Webster, V.R. 1954. Cruck-framed buildings of Leicestershire. Off-print from the Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological Society, Volume 30, pp. 26- 58. Leicester: Leicestershire Archaeological Society.
  • Woodfield, Paul. 1981. The larger medieval houses of Northamptonshire, off-print from Northamptonshire Archaeology, Volume 16, pp.153-196. (?): Northampshire Archaeology.
  • Walton, James. 1942. The domestic architecture of Tehri-Garhwal, off-print from the Modern Review, Volume 71, pp. 479 -481. Calcutta: Modern Review.
  • Walton, James. 1957. Cruck-framed buildings in Scotland, off print from Gwerin, Volume1, issue 3, pp. 109 – 122. Oxford[?]: Blackwells.

 

Journals

  • Antiquity Volume 92 (Number 365, October 2018).
  • Architects’ Journal Volume 245 (Issue 20, 25/10/2018).
  • Architects’ Journal Volume 245 (Issue 21, 08/11/2018).
  • Architects’ Journal Specification October (2018).
  • Britannia Volume 49 (2018).
  • Cartographic Journal Volume 55 (Number 3, August 2018).
  • Chapels Society Newsletter Volume 69 (September 2018).
  • Current Archaeology Volume 345 (December, 2018).
  • Current World Archaeology Volume 91 (October/November, 2018).
  • DBRG News, Domestic Building Research Group Surrey Volume 140 (October 2018).
  • Etifeddiaeth y Cymry Volume 67 (Gaeaf, 2018).
  • Essex Historic Buildings Group Newsletter No. 7 (October 2018).
  • Essex Historic Buildings Group Newsletter No. 8 (November 2018).
  • Gower Journal Volume 69 (2018).
  • Heritage in Wales Volume 67 (Winter, 2018).
  • Industrial Archaeology Review Volume 40 (Number 1, May 2018).
  • Mausolus: The Journal of the Mausolea and Monuments Trust (Summer 2018).
  • Melin Volume 34 (2018).
  • Merioneth: Journal of the Merioneth Historical and Record society = Cylchgrawn Cymdeithas Hanes a Chofnodion Sir Feirionydd Volume 18 (Part 1, 2018).
  • Panel for Historical Engineering Works Newsletter Number 159 (September 2018).
  • Pembrokeshire: The Journal of the Pembrokeshire Historical Society Volume 27 (2018).
  • PenCambria Volume 039 (Autumn 2018).
  • Railway & Canal Historical Society Bulletin No. 476 (November 2018).
  • Railway & Canal Historical Society Journal Volume 039 (Part 6, No. 233, 2018).
  • Touchstone 2018.
  • The Victorian Volume 59 (November 2018).

Journals: Current Awareness

  • Current Archaeology Volume 345 (December, 2018), p.52-55 Moving monoliths: New revelations from the Preseli bluestone quarries.
  • Current World Archaeology Volume 91 (October/November, 2018), p.9 From Wales to Stonehenge.
  • Industrial Archaeology Review Volume 40 (Number 1, May 2018) pp. 25-38 Bwrdd Marchnata Llaeth: Four Mill Marketing Board creameries in Wales, Brian Malaws and Miriam McDonald.
  • The Victorian Volume 59 (November 2018), p.16 John Summers Steelworks, Shotton on the Top 10 Endangered Buildings 2018.

 

Contact us

If you have any comments or enquiries, please feel free to contact us:

NMRW Library and Enquiries Service
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales
Penglais Road
Aberystwyth
Ceredigion SY23 3BU

Telephone: +44 (0)1970 621200
Fax: +44 (0)1970 627701
Email: nmr.wales@rcahmw.gov.uk
Website: rcahmw.gov.uk

Croesewir gohebiaeth yn y Gymraeg a’r Saesneg | Correspondence welcomed in Welsh and English

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Paviland Cave and the Ice Age Hunters https://rcahmw.gov.uk/paviland-cave-and-the-ice-age-hunters/ https://rcahmw.gov.uk/paviland-cave-and-the-ice-age-hunters/#respond Fri, 30 Nov 2018 15:29:23 +0000 https://rcahmw.gov.uk/?p=13553 Paviland Cave or Goat's Hole at low tide. The elongated fissure of the cave is at centre-right. The cliffs would have looked out over fertile lowland plains.

Paviland Cave or Goat’s Hole at low tide. The elongated fissure of the cave is at centre-right. The cliffs would have looked out over fertile lowland plains.

 

Caves have been a focus of human activity since the remotest periods of prehistory. Paviland Cave or Goat’s Hole on the coast of Gower is the most significant archaeological site in Britain of the earlier Upper Palaeolithic period. It was the location of the first systematic excavation of a human skeleton and of the first recovery of a human fossil: the misnamed ‘Red Lady’. Discovered in 1823, the fossilised skeleton was at first thought to be of recent date and female. However, it is now known to have been a ceremonially buried young adult male, a representative of the early humans who entered Europe around 40,000 years ago, during the last ice age.

The limestone fissure is easily accessible only at low tide. It has a history of exploration spanning almost two hundred years, beginning when archaeology was still an antiquarian pursuit and when the ancient origins of mankind were unsuspected. Material gathered from the cave has included many thousands of flints, animal bones, shells and worked ivory. In the 1990s concerns over marine erosion combined with a growing awareness of the site’s importance led to a comprehensive review of the cave, its geological context, the artefacts and their dating, and the remaining deposits. A vital part of the research project, which engaged specialist partners from across the world, was a definitive survey of the cave: this was completed by the Royal Commission in 1997. Although all archaeological layers had been totally removed, scientific re-evaluation yielded important results.

The cave is now on the coast, but at the time of the Red Lady burial, when sea levels were about 80 metres lower than today, it was some 100 kilometres inland. It was sited in a cliff above a plain of varied topography, with wide views toward the Exmoor hills. The animal bones recovered are numerous and varied: an environment of rich, arid grassland supported mammoths, woolly rhinos, giant deer, bison, reindeer and horses. Game may have been driven to its death over the cliffs by Palaeolithic hunters. Predators included hyenas, wolves and bears, which competed with humans to occupy the cave; whether or not it was used regularly as a domestic site by humans is unclear.

The Red Lady burial has been radiocarbon-dated to about 29,000 years ago, during a mild climatic phase before the glacial maximum. It was placed alongside the cave wall, associated with a mammoth skull, stained with red ochre and accompanied by worked bone and ivory, perforated teeth and fragments of perforated shells, all likewise stained red. The DNA sequence from the skeleton shows the pedigree of modern Europeans, while the slightly warm-adapted body proportions, when viewed within the broader available sample of contemporary remains, point to their African ancestry. Artefact evidence also revealed the presence, more than 30,000 years ago, of indigenous Neanderthals, a human species eventually replaced by the newcomers.

The cave may have remained a sacred place, but in the millennia following the burial it lay in a remote region that was eventually abandoned as the climatic downturn intensified. Nevertheless, the growing ice sheet stopped short of this point, preserving the cave for future generations to investigate.

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By David Leighton

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